Copyright in works created by assignment under Bulgarian Law

Article 42 of the Bulgarian Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Acts (CNRA) regulates the creation of works by assignment in Bulgaria.  It provides as follows: *** “(1) The copyright created under assignment vests in the author of the work unless else is agreed in the assignment contract.  (2) If else is not agreed the assignor is entitled to exploit the work without the author’s permission and for the purposes for which its creation was assigned.” *** A question that brings about most controversy in the legal practice and doctrine is what “unless else is agreed” means.  That question has not been … Continue reading

Typographic Typefaces and Copyright Law

Background In typography a “typeface” is considered to be a set of glyphs representing individual letters, symbols, marks or punctuations. During the 19th century wood was used as a material for developing the so-called wood types. The 20th century allowed for the mechanization of typesetting. The first machine for typefaces was created by Ottmar Mergenthaler. Later on during the 1970s the machine typesetting was replaced by phototypesetting equipment which evolved in the current digital typesetting. The design of a typeface may require a large period of time. Examination and processing of different styles, say for example the basic- roman, italic, … Continue reading